Criminal Harassment in Auckland – William Jaksa

August 20, 2023by Naomi Cramer


Criminal harassment is a felony offence below the Criminal Code of Auckland. It’s also generally known as “stalking.” Criminal harassment entails partaking in repeated, undesirable behaviour towards somebody that causes that particular person to worry for his or her security or for somebody they know. On condition that the utmost sentence is 10 years in jail, if in case you have been charged with felony harassment you must seek the advice of with an skilled Criminal lawyer.

This text will present an outline of felony harassment in Auckland, together with how the offences is outlined within the Criminal Code, some examples of the crime and a number of the frequent defences to the offence.

Woman being Stalked
Criminal Harassment Expenses in Auckland

What’s Criminal harassment – Criminal Code 

The Criminal Code lists Criminal Harassment below part 264 as:

264 (1) No particular person shall, with out lawful authority and realizing that one other particular person is harassed or recklessly as as to if the opposite particular person is harassed, interact in conduct referred to in subsection (2) that causes that different particular person moderately, in all of the circumstances, to worry for his or her security or the security of anybody identified to them.

Prohibited conduct

(2) The conduct talked about in subsection (1) consists of

(a) repeatedly following from place to put the opposite particular person or anybody identified to them;

(b) repeatedly speaking with, both instantly or not directly, the opposite particular person or anybody identified to them;

(c) besetting or watching the dwelling-house, or place the place the opposite particular person, or anybody identified to them, resides, works, carries on enterprise or occurs to be; or

(d) partaking in threatening conduct directed on the different particular person or any member of their family.

What Qualifies as Harassment – The Act of Criminal Harassment 

The courts have repeatedly said that the next actions represent the felony behaviour, or the prohibited conduct, of felony harassment:

  • When an accused particular person repeatedly follows one other particular person (stalking)
  • When an accused particular person makes an attempt repeatedly speaking both with the sufferer or one other particular person identified to the sufferer
  • Watching or “besetting” a spot the place the complainant is anticipated to be
  • Partaking in threatening behaviour in the direction of the sufferer or their household

To be discovered responsible of felony harassment, the accused should both know or be reckless as as to if the complainant is harassed by a number of of the above-mentioned types of conduct. Additional, the complainant should moderately within the circumstances be fearful for his or her security or the security of somebody identified to them on account of the conduct. 

Some Examples of Criminal Harassment

Some frequent examples of felony harassment could embrace the next: 

  • Persistently sending the complainant unsolicited messages, cellphone calls stay chats, or emails; 
  • Repeatedly following the complainant; 
  • Repeatedly watching the complainant; 
  • Sending the complainant undesirable presents; 
  • Partaking in threatening conduct directed on the complainant or any member of their household; 
  • Leaving threatening voicemails; and 
  • Exhibiting up uninvited to the complainant’s work or residence 

What Does Repeated Communications Imply?

One of many actions that constitutes felony harassment is when an accused particular person repeatedly makes an attempt to speak with the complainant. This usually occurs with repeated and undesirable cellphone calls. The courts have stated that the requirement for the accused to be discovered responsible of “repeatedly speaking” with the sufferer below s. 264(2)(b) there must be some proof of as few as two situations of makes an attempt to speak, however this additionally depends upon all the encircling the circumstances. 

Criminal harassment from repeated calls
Repeated makes an attempt to speak is felony harassment.

What’s Harassment? Its Greater than annoying.

For the Crown to ascertain harassment, they need to show the accused particular person’s acts “tormented, troubled, fearful regularly or chronically, plagued, bedeviled or badgered” the complainant. These phrases are synonymous with harassment and the Crown doesn’t have to show every, they usually not cumulative, simply want to ascertain one.

Harassment, a minimum of to qualify as felony harassment, the Crown wants to ascertain that the sufferer felt a “sense of being topic to ongoing torment.” The harassment have to be greater than the sufferer simply merely being “vexed, disquieted or aggravated”. 

What’s Threatening Conduct?

What constitutes threatening conduct? The definition of threatening conduct is subjective and may fluctuate relying on the particular person’s interpretation and the encircling circumstances. Usually, nevertheless, threatening conduct refers to any habits or motion that causes one other particular person to really feel worry, anxiousness or intimidation. Some frequent examples of threatening conduct embrace making verbal threats, sending harassing emails or textual content messages, and stalking.

The courts have said that threatening conduct is “a device of intimidation which is designed to instill a way of worry.” That threatening conduct have to be assessed “objectively” with consideration for the circumstances surrounding the incident or incidents, and the impacts on the victims. It isn’t needed that the threatening conduct include express threats or violent acts. There additionally doesn’t essentially be any spoken phrases in any respect. 

Additionally, judges should take into account and assess the threatening conduct from the attitude of the complainant. A single threatening act will be thought of felony harassment relying on the affect on the complainant and the circumstances.

Courts have said that felony harassment offences mustn’t embrace conduct that’s merely “imply, petty, uncooperative and spiteful”. 

Stalking charges
Stalking costs are felony harassment costs.

What’s besetting OR Watching?

Besetting is a authorized time period that refers to threatening conduct that intimidates or harasses one other particular person to the purpose the place they’re unable to hold out their every day actions. This could embrace behaviour like following somebody round, making threatening cellphone calls, or sending undesirable emails or textual content messages. Besetting doesn’t require bodily proximity to the sufferer.

Whereas watching is the act of merely wanting and observing for an individual or place. The courts have stated the act of merely taking a look at somebody and smiling at them will not be adequate to be watching. 

Victims Worry for Their Security 

A victims worry for his or her security now extends past worry of being bodily harmed or injured, it additionally contains psychological hurt and emotional safety. It features a state of hysteria or apprehension or emotional misery, along with any potential bodily hurt. The worry for one’s “monetary well-being” will not be sufficient, the affordable worry is decided on an goal customary.

How Does the Crown Show Criminal Harassment Past a Cheap Doubt?  

For the Crown to safe a conviction for felony harassment they need to show past an affordable doubt {that a} complainant, on account of a prohibited act or prohibited conduct, was being harassed. Repeatedly makes an attempt at communication or repetition of threatening conduct can quantity to harassment. But additionally a single act can quantity to harassment.

  1. When & the place the harassment happened
  2. The the accused engaged conduct outlined in s.264(2)
  3. The complainant was harassed by the conduct
  4. The accused knew the complainant was harassed, or was reckless or willfully blind as to the complainant being harassed
  5. The conduct triggered worry
  6. The complainants worry was affordable within the circumstances

The Crown can even have to show the sufferer had an affordable worry for his or her security and the accused knew that, or was reckless as as to if, the conduct was harassing.  

Woman fearful from criminal harassment
Worry have to be affordable in all of the circumstances.

Defences – The way to Defend Criminal Harassment Expenses

Relying on the circumstance surrounding the felony harassment costs there will be a number of actual viable defences. Most frequently defences deal with attacking the circumstances that help the weather of the offence. Some defences to a felony harassment costs embrace:

  • Demonstrating that the alleged act was not harassment
  • There was no intention to commit the act of harassment
  • That the complainant’s worry was not affordable within the circumstances 
  • There have been Constitution Rights points encompass the accused’s arrest
  • Proving that the sufferer had motive to manufacture

Punishment – Sentencing for Criminal Harassment

Sentencing for felony harassment in Auckland, very similar to most felony offences, could be a advanced course of, with many sentencing concerns. There aren’t any necessary minimal sentences for felony harassment, subsequently the punishment for this crime after conviction can vary from an absolute discharge, suspended sentence, a tremendous or as much as a most of 10 years if the Crown proceeds by indictment.

Evidently, how a Crown chooses to proceed, both by abstract conviction or by indictment, will affect the severity of the ultimate punishment. A choose’s last sentence might be a weighing of the sentencing ideas as outlined within the felony code, the seriousness of the allegations, the affect on the accused particular person and the irritating and mitigating sentencing components which might be current.

As talked about if the Crown elects to proceed by indictment the utmost sentence will be as much as 10 years imprisonment. If the Crown elects abstract conviction the sentence might be as much as 2 years much less a day in jail and a $5000 tremendous.

The implications of being discovered responsible and convicted of a felony harassment will be severe and lengthy lasting. Whereas jail and a felony file is actual risk in some circumstances, the impacts on journey and employment might final for a few years. There can even probably be necessary weapon prohibition orders and orders to have DNA saved on the Canadian DNA knowledge financial institution.

Auckland Criminal Lawyer for Criminal Harassment Expenses

When you have been charged with felony harassment you want a felony lawyer that understands the legislation surrounding stalking. William Jaksa has been working towards felony defence legislation for over 15 years and understands that each one clients matter and all costs matter.



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by Naomi Cramer

Auckland Lawyer for FIRST TIME Offenders Seeking to Avoid a Conviction. Family Law Expert in Child Care Custody Disputes. If you are facing Court Naomi will make you feel comfortable every step of the way.  As a consummate professional your goals become hers, with customer service as our top priority. It has always been Naomi’s philosophy to approach whatever you do in life with bold enthusiasm and pure dedication. Complement this with her genuine passion for equal justice and rights for all and you have the formula for success. Naomi is a highly skilled Court lawyer having practised for more than 20 years. She serves the greater Auckland region and can travel to represent clients throughout NZ With extensive experience, an analytical eye for detail, and continuing legal education Naomi’s skill set will maximise your legal rights whilst offering a holistic approach that best fits your individual needs. This is further enhanced with her high level of support and understanding. Naomi will redefine what you expect from your legal professional, facilitating a seamless experience from start to finish.   Her approachable and adaptive demeanor serves her well when working with the diverse cultures that make up the Auckland region. Blend her open and honest approach to her transparent process and you can see why she routinely delivers the satisfying results her clients deserve. If you want to maximise your legal rights, we recommend you book an appointment with Naomi today so she can detail the steps for you to achieve your goals. 

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